Research-Supported Applications of Interactive Metronome®
Academic & Behavioural Improvement
Professor Jamshid Damooei PhD California Lutheran University
Full paper: http://www.interactivemetronome.com/images/Study-Academic_and_Behavioral_Improvemnt_Hardy_Brain_Camp-1-25-12.pdf
ADHD (2 papers)
Attention & Motor Coordination
Full paper: http://braintime.co.nz/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/9-yr-boy-attentio-and-motor_bartscherer2005-1-copy.pdf
Auditory Processing Disorder
Developmental Coordination Disorders
Golf Shot Accuracy (2 papers)
PTSD & Head Injury Dual Diagnosis
Reading Problems, (2 papers)
Stroke Rehabilitation (2 papers)
Note results will vary between trainees, therefore individual results cannot be guaranteed. Please read the full Disclaimer statement.
Interactive Metronome Research, & Various Papers in Date Order (Earliest to Latest)
The majority of the published Interactive Metronome® research is listed immediately below. There is access to the full paper in PDF for most listings.
There are numerous broader interacting contextual factors that can inhibit or enhance the most favourable conditions for neuroplastic change. Key among them are: breathing, exercise, nutrition. and adequate sleep. Following the Interactive Metronome® research, there are a few samples of research which exemplify the importance of these contextual factors.
Brain Time Ltd offers educational coaching re these contextual topics. A referral to a relevant professional for more extensive help may be made either prior to IM training, or concurrent with IM training, or after IM training.
Interactive Metronome® Research
Effect of Interactive Metronome Training on Children with ADHD (2001)
A study of 56 pre-teen boys diagnosed with ADHD found that those using IM showed statistically significant improvement in attention and concentration, motor coordination, language processing, reading and math fluency and the ability to control impulsivity. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Download or read PDF copy
Theoretical and Clinical Perspectives on the Interactive Metronome: A View From Occupational Therapy Practice (2001)
This published white paper includes the perspective of six Occupational Therapists describing IM’s usefulness in addressing school, home and social relationship problems in children. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Download or read PDF copy
Timing in Child Development (2002)
A study of 585 children found significant correlations between the students’ mental timing as measured by IM and their academic performance in reading, math, language, science, social studies and personal study skills. This study shows that brain timing plays a foundational role in a child’s academic performance. High Scope Press Download or read PDF copy
Training in Timing Improves Accuracy in Golf (2002)
This published study demonstrates a connection between IM’s timing exercises and improvements in complex movements as seen in dramatic improvements in golf shot accuracy. Journal of General Psychology Download or read PDF copy
Interactive metronome- Underlying Neurocognitive Correlates of Effectiveness (2003)
A white paper by psychologist Dr Patrick Gorman explaining the underlying neuro-cognitive mechanisms of IM training. Download or read PDF copy
Learning Problems and the Left Behind (2003)
This study, by Dr. Cindy Cason, of 40 4th and 5th grade “at risk” children showed dramatic gains in reading and math fluency in only 4 weeks. 40 similar students in the control group showed no improvement at all. White paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association of Elementary School Principals Download or read PDF copy
Processing Speed and Motor Planning: The Scientific Background to the Skills Trained by Interactive Metronome® Technology (2003)
A white paper by psychologist Dr. Susan Diamond explaining the scientific background to the benefits seen by using IM. Download or read PDF copy
A study of 13 patients measured across a broad spectrum of function shows that gains made with IM are still present 6 months after therapy was completed. (2003)
This study is presents further evidence that IM training has impact upon balance, physical coordination, attention, concentration, motor planning and sequencing and the more complex cognitive capacities of planning, sequencing; concept formation and reasoning. Download or read PDF copy
Improving Motor Planning and Sequencing to Improve Outcomes in Speech and Language Therapy (2004)
Dr Lorraine Jones, a Speech-Language Pathologist helps explain the connection between IM’s timing exercises and improvements in speech and language therapy. Download or read PDF copy
The Role of Functional MRI in Defining Auditory-Motor Processing Networks (2004)
A summary of a study using fMRI in defining the organs of the brain activated in repetitive auditory-motor training and the potential of IM to make improvements in those areas. Download or read PDF copy
Interactive Metronome Training for a 9-Year-Old Boy with Attention and Motor Coordination Difficulties (2005)
The purpose of this case report is to describe a new intervention, the Interactive Metronome, for improving timing and coordination. A nine-year-old boy, with difficulties in attention and developmental delay of unspecified origin underwent a seven-week training program with the Interactive Metronome.1 Before, during, and after training timing, accuracy was assessed with testing procedures consistent with the Interactive Metronome training protocol. Before and after training, his gross and fine motor skills were examined with the Bruininiks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP). The child exhibited marked change in scores on both timing accuracy and several BOTMP subtests. Additionally his mother relayed anecdotal reports of changes in behavior at home. This child’s participation in a new intervention for improving timing and coordination was associated with changes in timing accuracy, gross and fine motor abilities, and parent reported behaviors. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice Download or read PDF copy.
Auditory Processing: The Effect of Interactive Metronome Training on Children’s SCAN-C Scores. (2006)
Etra, Joel L., 2006: PhD Dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Fischler School of Education and Human Services. Auditory Perception/Auditory Training/ Auditory Tests/Audiology
In this study, the effect of Interactive Metronome, a treatment for attention deficit that requires the subject to match a computer generated rhythm, on auditory processing in male and female children ages nine to fourteen was investigated. Eight children were administered the SCAN-C and then were given the 15-hour Interactive Metronome training and administered the SCAN-C again. SCAN-C raw scores showed a significant increase (p = .002). SCAN-C subtests of dichotic listening showed greater improvements than the other subtests. Interactive Metronome appears to improve auditory processing disorders by influencing neurological organization. It was concluded that Interactive Metronome could be an effective treatment for disorders of auditory processing.
Improvements in interval time tracking and effects on reading achievement (2007)
This study showed that children completing a training program with Interactive Metronome achieved accelerated reading outcomes. A gain of 7 – 20% in reading achievement was shown in the 49 children whose reading and pre-reading skills were pre and post-tested. Psychology in the Schools Download or read PDF copy
Improved Motor-Timing: Effects of Synchronized Metronome Training on Golf Shot Accuracy (2009)
This European study is an independent recreation of earlier IM research studying golfers. This new study showed the same results: working with IM’s timing exercises improves golfers’ control of their swing and improves shot accuracy. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Download or read PDF copy
The effect of hemisphere specific remediation strategies on the academic performance outcome of children with ADD/ADHD (2010)
The development and normal function of the cerebrum is largely dependent on sub-cortical structures, such as the cerebellum and basal ganglia. Dysfunction in these areas can affect both the nonspecific arousal system and information transfer in the brain. Dysfunction of this sort often results in motor and sensory symptoms commonly seen in children with ADD/ADHD. This study examines groups of ADD/ADHD elementary school children from first through sixth grade. Results measured after a 12-week remediation program, consisting of mainly IM, aimed at increasing the activity of the hypothesized underactive right hemisphere function, yielded significant improvement of greater than two years in grade level … Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2010 Apr-Jun;22(2):275-83. Download or read a PDF copy
Effects of Motor Sequence Training on Attentional Performance in ADHD Children (2011)
This study addresses the lack of motor coordination in ADHD children and suggests that going through IM training would have a significant effect on improving focus in ADHD children. International Journal on Disability and Human Development Download or read PDF copy
Remarkable Improvement from Stroke Years Earlier, in Four Weeks (12 hours total), of Interactive Metronome Training (2011)
This study of two stroke patients with hemipareis (weakness on one side of the body) showed remarkable functional gains using IM, years after the patients suffered their strokes. This improvement was gained in only 4 weeks of 3 one-hour Interactive Metronome sessions per week. American Journal of Occupational Therapy Download or read PDF copy
The effects of the Interactive Metronome as an intervention tool on decreasing levels of aggression and improving life satisfaction with mild traumatic brain injury and post- traumatic stress disorder clients: a pilot study of protocols (2011)
Academic and Behavioral Improvements in 2nd- Through 8th-Grade Students in the Hardy Brain Camp Program (November 2011)
Report on the Hardy Brain Camp Pilot Study of the Boys & Girls Clubs of Greater Oxnard and Port Hueneme and the United Boys & Girls Clubs of Santa Barbara County.
The academic and behavioral performance of 54 students (grades 2-8) was studied before and after participation in the Hardy Brain Camp program. The students, who belonged to the Boys and Girls Club of Greater Oxnard and Port Hueneme and attended school in the Rio School District along with students who belonged to the United Boys & Girls Clubs of Santa Barbara, were selected by Boys and Girls Club Staff and Rio School District School Psychologists as those needing academic, attention, and behavior improvements.
The students in both groups were selected because of observed difficulties with learning, attention, organization, behavior, poor grades, listening, following directions, completing schoolwork, reading and/or math weaknesses. Some of the students were struggling in regular classrooms, some in Special- Education pull-out programs, some with Special Education one-to-one aides, some in full-day Special Education programs and some in programs for emotionally disturbed children. Some had no diagnosis and some had diagnoses of Learning Disabilities, ADD, ADHD, dyslexia, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, speech and language delay, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, Asperger’s Syndrome and autism. They all had severe difficulties that negatively impacted their ability to do well in school. Download or read full PDF copy
Abstract This exploratory study examined the effects of Interactive Metronome (IM) when integrated with a traditional language and reading intervention on reading achievement. Forty-nine school-age children with language and reading impairments were assigned randomly to either an experimental group who received the IM treatment or to a control group who did not. Both groups received language and reading intervention, and the experimental group received an additional four hours of IM treatment during a four-week period. Although both groups made gains in reading rate/fluency and comprehension, the extent of the gains was much larger in the IM group. IM training may be useful for promoting the reading rate/fluency and comprehension of children with language and reading impairments. Communication Disorders Quarterly September 28, 2012 Download or read PDF copy
Effects of Interactive Metronome Therapy on Cognitive Functioning After Blast-Related Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial (2013)
Lonnie A. Nelson, Margaret MacDonald, Christina Stall, and Renee Pazdan. Online First Publication Neuropsychology September 23, 2013 Download or read PDF copy
Research Related to Interactive Metronome
Ability to Move to a Beat Linked to Brain’s Response to Speech
People who are better able to move to a beat show more consistent brain responses to speech than those with less rhythm, according to a study published in the September 18 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience. Click here for more info
Brain Regions Can be Specifically Trained with Video Games
Oct. 30, 2013 – Video gaming causes increases in the brain regions responsible for spatial orientation, memory formation and strategic planning as well as fine motor skills. This has been shown in a new study. The positive effects of video gaming may also prove relevant in therapeutic interventions targeting psychiatric disorders. Click here for more info
Poor motor performance linked to poor academic skills
Oct. 28, 2013 — Children with poor motor performance at the school entry were found to have poorer reading and arithmetic skills than their better performing peers during the first three years of school. Click here for more info
Thanks to Dr Kevin McGrew for collating & comments in this section of “Research Related to Interactive Metronome”.
Oral and Hand Movement Speeds are Associated with Expressive Language Ability in Children with Speech Sound Disorder Journal of Psycholinguistic Research December 2012, Volume 41, Issue 6, pp 455-474
Slowing Down: age-related neurobiological predictors of processing speed (2011)
Mark A. Eckert
Hearing Research Program, Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
Processing speed, or the rate at which tasks can be performed, is a robust predictor of age- related cognitive decline and an indicator of independence among older adults. This review examines evidence for neurobiological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, which is guided in part by our source based morphometry findings that unique patterns of frontal and cerebellar gray matter predict age-related variation in processing speed. These results, together with the extant literature on morphological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, suggest that specific neural systems undergo declines and as a result slow processing speed. Future studies of processing speed – dependent neural systems will be important for identifying the etiologies for processing speed change and the development of interventions that mitigate gradual age-related declines in cognitive functioning and enhance healthy cognitive aging. Read or download full paper. PDF
Breathing: HeartMath EM Wave Research
The HearthMath EM Wave biofeedback system for training breathing is very accessible, easy to learn, and integrates extremely well with Interactive Metronome. HeartMath emphasizes the impact breathing has on (1) the physical heart, (2) the initiation of the relaxation response, and in turn (3) potentiating optimal blood-flow to the Prefrontal Cortex part of the brain. Gerry Brawn-Douglas, the Managing Director of Brain Time Ltd, has had extensive experience in teaching HeartMath EM Wave.
HeartMath have their own research library. Click here to access it.
Contact Brain Time Ltd if you would like to know more about HeartMath EM Wave.
Sleep: Everything you ever wanted to know about it, from Dr Mercola
This link will take you to an article about getting a good night’s sleep. Below the article are many others covering numerous related topics such as sleep drugs, circadian rhythms, & jet lag
Nutrition Research & the Brain
Published research for vitamin and mineral supplement EMPowerplus Q96
Featured Research Paper (1)
Obesity (2011) doi:10.1038/oby.2011.16
Abstract: Obesity is a risk factor for stroke and neurodegenerative disease. Excess body fat has been linked to impaired glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and impulsivity and may be a precursor to decline in attention and executive cognitive function. Here, we investigated the effects of high BMI on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging in healthy subjects. A total of 16 adult men and 20 adult women were recruited from the community between January 2003 and July 2009 as part of a healthy brain study (HBS) conducted at the Amen Clinics, a private medical facility. Participants in the study were screened to exclude medical, neurological, and psychiatric conditions, including substance abuse. Subjects were categorized as normal or overweight according to BMI. Using a two sample t-test, we determined the effects of BMI on rCBF in normal vs. overweight subjects. Subjects were matched for age and gender. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) revealed a higher BMI in healthy individuals that is associated with decreased rCBF in Broadmann areas 8, 9, 10, 11, 32, and 44, brain regions involved in attention, reasoning, and executive function (P < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). We found that an elevated BMI is associated with decreased rCBF in the prefrontal cortex of a healthy cohort. These results indicate that elevated BMI may be a risk factor for decreased prefrontal cortex function and potentially impaired executive function.
Effects of essential fatty acids in iron deficient and sleep-disturbed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children.
The following summary of this paper is from Dr Amen’s blog, titled “If Someone Calls You A Fathead Say Thank You”
ADHD is not a one-treatment-fits-all disorder. In fact no single treatment has shown to be “conclusively effective for all ADHD patients”. And although there is no claim stating that nutritional deficiency is the cause of ADHD, it is commonly agreed that nutritional deficits may worsen the symptoms, especially essential fatty acids (EFA) and iron deficiency. According to a new study, insufficient amounts in both EFA and iron have shown to affect the severity of ADHD and quality of sleep.
The sleep patterns among ADHD children showed reduced sleep, more awakenings, and reduce rapid eye movement sleep, which is the deepest and most important stage of sleep. The study recruited 78 sleep-deprived boys, ages 9 to 12, who were all diagnosed with ADHD. Almost half of the boys received treatment and the other half received placebos. The treatment consisted of essential fatty acid mixtures for 10 weeks. The group receiving the treatment showed significant improvement in sleep, focus, energy, cooperation, and even their iron status. The placebo group had no improvement. This study shows evidence that adding essential fatty acids can help improve the quality of life for children suffering from ADHD.
Source: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Oct;65(10):1167-9
Featured Research Paper (2)
Processed Food Diet in Early Childhood May Lower Subsequent IQ
February 8, 2011 — A diet, high in fats, sugars and processed foods in early childhood may lower IQ, while a diet packed full of vitamins and nutrients may do the opposite, suggests new … full story
Featured Nutrition Research Summary Articles
More and more, science is finding that teeny tiny creatures living in your gut are there for a definite purpose. Known as your microbiome, about 100 trillion of these cells populate your body, particularly your intestines and other parts of your digestive system.
Compared to kids who are not overweight, obese children are at nearly twice the risk of having three or more reported medical, mental or developmental conditions
Monsanto’s Roundup Herbicide May Be Most Important Factor in Development of Autism and Other Chronic Disease -June 09, 2013
By Dr. Mercola
Dr. Stephanie Seneff, a research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), reveals how glyphosate wrecks human health.
In the video interview above, Dr. Seneff summarizes the two key problems caused by glyphosate in the diet:
- Nutritional deficiencies
- Systemic toxicity
Their findings make the need for labelling all the more urgent, and the advice to buy certified organic all the more valid.
Interestingly, your gut bacteria are a key component of glyphosate’s mechanism of harm.
Monsanto has steadfastly claimed that Roundup is harmless to animals and humans because the mechanism of action it uses (which allows it to kill weeds), called the shikimate pathway, is absent in all animals. However, the shikimate pathway IS present in bacteria, and that’s the key to understanding how it causes such widespread systemic harm in both humans and animals.
The bacteria in your body outnumber your cells by 10 to 1. For every cell in your body, you have 10 microbes of various kinds, and all of them have the shikimate pathway, so they will all respond to the presence of glyphosate!
Glyphosate causes extreme disruption of the microbe’s function and lifecycle. What’s worse, glyphosate preferentially affects beneficial bacteria, allowing pathogens to overgrow and take over. At that point, your body also has to contend with the toxins produced by the pathogens. Once the chronic inflammation sets in, you’re well on your way toward chronic and potentially debilitating disease.
In the video interview above, Dr. Seneff reviews a variety of chronic diseases, explaining how glyphosate contributes to each condition. So to learn more, I urge you to listen to it in its entirety. It’s quite eye-opening.
Featured Nutrition Video
The video features numerous scientists and investigators describing the health dangers of GM foods and, according to bestselling author John Robbins, pierces the myth that US government is protecting the food supply; and charges parents and schools with the job of protecting children. Mad Cowboy author Howard Lyman says, “It will change the way you look at food forever”. Whilst set in the US, the material covered in this video has increasing application to NZ, especially in light of the pressure that NZ is increasingly being subject to with the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). TPP will pressure NZ into growing and accepting increasing amounts of GM food.
By Dr. Mercola
In September of last year, the first-ever lifetime feeding study assessing the health risks of genetically engineered (GE) Roundup Ready corn (NK603) was published in Reed Elsevier’s peer-reviewed journal, Food and Chemical Toxicology.
Rats given glyphosate in their drinking water also developed tumours. Glyphosate is the active ingredient in Monsanto’s herbicide Roundup, which has recently been implicated as a major contributor to chronic disease. Needless to say, Séralini’s findings set off a fire-storm of opposition from the industry.
Monsanto’s flawed scientific studies, which form the basis of the so-called safety of GMO’s, ran for only 90 days.
It’s quite noteworthy that after an intense year-long review by the publisher—in addition to being reviewed by twice the typical number of referees prior to publication—the study was not retracted due to errors, fraud, or even the slightest misrepresentation of data.
So why was this research report retracted by the journal publisher??
Click here to read the full article. As you work your way through this article, ask yourself the following questions:
Will the planned TPP trade agreement mean NZ-based scientific publications become more vulnerable to this type of “corporate terrorism”, as Mercola calls it?
Physical Exercise & the Brain
Review Article: Exercise Has Numerous Beneficial Effects On Brain Health and Cognition
July 25, 2011 — A new article highlights the results of more than a hundred recent human and animal studies on how aerobic exercise and strength training play a vital role in maintaining brain and cognitive health … full story
Children’s Brain Development Is Linked to Physical Fitness
(Sep. 16, 2010) — Researchers have found an association between physical fitness and the brain in 9- and 10-year-old children: Those who are more fit tend to have a bigger hippocampus and perform better on a test of … > read more
Combining Physical Activity With Classroom Lessons Results in Improved Test Scores
July 1, 2011 — When schools cut physical education programs so students can spend more time in the classroom, they may be missing a golden opportunity to promote … > full story. To see a video of Dr. King and Dr. Scahill discussing their study click here.
Exercise Improves Executive Function & Achievement, and Alters Brain Activation in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial
February 11, 2011 — Regular exercise improves the ability of overweight, previously inactive children to think, plan and even do math, researchers report. They hope the findings in 171 overweight 7- to 11-year-olds — … > full story
Exercise May Help Prevent Brain Damage Caused by Alzheimer’s Disease
August 15, 2011 — Regular exercise could help prevent brain damage associated with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s, according to new … > full story
Moderate Exercise Enhances Connectivity in Brain Circuits
Moderate exercise can help to enhance connectivity in brain circuits. Additionally, exercise can help to improve cognition and combat decline in brain functions associated with aging. For more detail go to Neuroscience News 24 Feb 2011
Exercise Training Increases Size of Hippocampus and Improves Memory
A randomized controlled trial with 120 older adults, showed that aerobic exercise training increases the size of the anterior hippocampus, leading to improvements in spatial memory … full story Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences February 15, 2011, 108 (7)
To read an article in Scientific American based on this research click here
Featured Special Research Topic
The Medicalizing of Mental Illness Over the Last 40 Years
Dr Mercola interviews distinguished writer Robert Whitaker -author of Anatomy of an Epidemic: Magic bullets, psychiatric drugs and the astonishing rise of mental illness in America
The author’s careful research includes reporting on and quoting from the minutes of annual meetings of the American Psychiatric Association. He alleges systemic deceit and corruption at the highest levels between the American Psychiatric Association and major drug companies. Whitaker demonstrates a comprehensive grasp of relevant research to support his thesis that the extensive growth in prescribing drugs for “mental illness”, especially anti-depressants, is a likely cause of an astonishing increase in more serious conditions -such as Bipolar Disorder.
In a review of this book David Healy, M.D., and Professor of Psychiatry at Cardiff University wrote: “Anatomy of an Epidemic investigates a profoundly troubling question: do psychiatric medications increase the likelihood that people taking them, far from being helped, are more likely to become chronically ill? In making a compelling case that our current psychotropic drugs are causing as much—if not more—harm than good, Robert Whitaker reviews the scientific literature thoroughly, demonstrating how much of the evidence is on his side. There is nothing unorthodox here—this case is solid and evidence-backed. If psychiatry wants to retain its credibility with the public, it will now have to engage with the scientific argument at the core of this cogently and elegantly written book.”
Related News Flash -Courtesy of Dr Mercola
Drug Company Lack of Ethics -Recent Tragic Example, Among Many
Johnson & Johnson Markets Antipsychotic Drug Risperdal, for Unapproved Uses to Boost Profits at the Expense of Patients’ Health
There’s no doubt that in some circumstances drugs can be useful, as part of a treatment package, for mental health issues. Such an approach to mental health treatment involves an implicit trust in the drug manufacturers. Too often this trust is abused.
- Risperdal was heavily promoted for unproven off-label uses for more than a decade, even after the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued warnings against the misleading claims
- Research has shown that up to two-thirds of prescriptions for Risperdal were for unapproved uses that had little or no scientific support. One commonly promoted use was for dementia, but elderly dementia patients who were prescribed Risperdal for off-label uses were found to increase their chances of death by 54 percent within the first 12 weeks of taking it.
- To further quote Mercola Drug companies, including not only Johnson & Johnson but many others, continue to be among the top corporate criminals on the planet… which makes trusting the products they produce a risky proposition, at best.
For the full story click here.